IE 673 eLearning
Homework Assignment 5
1. Explain what is QFD, (Quality Function Deployment)?
Quality Function deployment is a system wherein the voice of the customer is given priority in the design and production of products and services. The system is made up of a set of matrices each with a unique purpose that, when linked together, produce a framework on which to execute quality strategies. The various matrices cover elements such as the needs of the customer, targets of design, technical requirements, and strategic planning. While each Matrix is developed in its own unique way, the matrices all come together in what's known as the house of quality. Which is a visual representation of the quality strategy.
2. Explain the WHATs in a QFD matrix
The WHATs is a comprehensive list of customer needs. Determining, refining, and prioritizing these customer needs is what the house of quality is built on. The customer needs are all of the elements of a product or service that require attention or Improvement. Inequality situation, the customer needs are Paramount everything else. The customers are the ones who ultimately purchase and use the product or service, so developing your product or service with the customer needs in mind improve the likelihood of success and happy customers. The customer needs are determined first by gathering customer input. How does input is determined and gathered differs based on the particular product or service, however there are a variety of strategies from which to choose. Some options include focus groups, user groups, polls, service inputs, questionnaires, and warranty activity. Once the customer inputs have been received, they must be refined into something more useful. This refining process is accomplished through the use of various quality tools. Some of these quality tools include an affinity diagram and a tree diagram. Both the Affinity diagram and the tree diagram are used to promote creativity and organization among the variety of inputs received. They accomplish this by creating a visual representation of the data as well as an organizational structure which makes the data easier to navigate and thus easier to prioritize. The output of this process is a prioritized list of elements that require attention and or Improvement as the design of the product is focused outward on the customer.
3. Explain the HOWs in a QFD matrix
Whereas the WHATs are focused on the needs of the customer, the HOWs seek to answer the question of how the company will respond to the customer needs. These HOWs are the new processes and procedures developed to improve upon each of the elements that have been determined in the previous steps to require improvements in quality. Based on the needs of the customer, systems and strategies are established. tree diagrams and Affinity diagrams can be used to break down each of the customer needs into the various processes required to fulfill the need. Through this process technical requirements and strategies are developed. The technical requirements are the prioritized procedures that make up the development structure. So, for each customer need, there is a series of technical steps that need to be undertaken in order to refine and improve upon the customer need.
4. Explain the 1, or 3, or 9 interrelationship values in a QFD matrix
Once the customer needs and the technical requirements are established, the next step is to determine the interrelationships between the needs of the customers and how the company will respond to each individual need. These into relationships categorized into a strong, medium, or weak relationship for each interrelated segment. Every customer need must relate to at least one technical requirement. And, each technical requirements must relate to at least one customer need. Each determined interrelationship is assessed as to the degree of relationship. A strong relationship is given the number 9, a medium relationship is given the number 3, and a weak relationship is given the number 1. For easier visual interpretation, symbols may also be used to symbolize strong, medium, and weak relationships.
5. Explain how you calculate the technical priorities in the design target matrix
Once the needs of the customer are determined, and then the appropriate company response is determined as to how to best meet the needs of the customer, then the design targets are established. By calculating the proper design target numbers, the quality of each design element is more precisely defined. An example provided by the textbook is, if it is determined that The Binding of a book must be more durable, then through the design Target Matrix calculations it will be determined just how much more durable The Binding must be. This calculation helps to establish and prioritize the various technical requirements necessary to improve the overall quality of the product or service. The calculation is carried out by first multiplying the number assigned through the ratings of the into relationships by the customer needs overall rating value that was established in the planning Matrix. This multiplication process is then carried out for each of the into relationships found in a particular technical requirement column. The products from all of these multiplications are then added together. The resulting number is called the technical priority. As this process is carried out for each technical requirement, each technical requirement will receive a priority rating. The sum of the Technical priorities for each category is 10 calculated in order to determine, for each category, the percentage of total priority. What this does, is organize and prioritize the various technical requirements into a Visual and mathematical order that enables the company to better determine where and how to spend their resources and which technical requirements will achieve the highest potential for customer satisfaction.
6. Define statistical process control
Statistical process control is a method that separates and brings to light natural variances from special variances in a process. All Industrial procedures follow some sort of process. These processes in the workplace are a culmination of machine, materials, method, measurements, and Manpower. Any one of these elements will have variances. There are natural variances that are expected to occur in any given process. However, there are also special causes and special variances that can occur. Through statistical process control, the natural and the special variances can be determined. A process is said to be within control if it lies within a three sigma variance. This allows for Natural variances that will inevitably occur, and helps to identify special causes and special variances.
7. Explain control charts for variables, with a simple mathematical example
Control charts for variables are used to charge measurable quantities such as Dimensions, wait, time, and strength. Essentially, these kinds of charts are used to charge anything that's physically measurable. These charts and graphs relate sample data such as the average overtime and the variations in different samples over time.
If it is desired to set up control charts for a brand new process, the number of subgroups for the calculations should be 25 or more. However, in the following example there are fewer than 25 subgroups as Simplicity is desired.
8. Explain control charts for attributes, with a simple mathematical example
Control charts for attributes provide data on elements that can be counted. For example, the number of defects.
9. Discuss and explain various continual quality improvement methods and tools
Control charts can be used for continual Improvement by providing alerts when special causes create outliers on the charts. Once a process is set up it can be continually monitored by the use of the control charts. Data is continuously collected and the charts are created. When an outlier is found due to a special cause, appropriate action can be taken to improve the process based on the error found. Then, new control chart variables can be created. For example, the upper control limit and the lower control limits may vary as the processes are improved. By tracking and plotting data as it becomes available, in real time, errors in the process can be determined very quickly, at the first sign of trouble. Should an error be detected, the process is stopped and the error is fixed prior to the process being restarted. This continual cycle allows for consistent and continuous Improvement of Any Given process.
10. Explain the way control charts could be used for quality improvements
Control charts can be used to control a process, or see if a process is under control. What this means is, when a process is first established, it is tested and the data is recorded. From this data the initial set of control charts can be created. This includes charts to monitor defects in the process, or charts that monitor outputs such as the variances in length, size, or weight of a product. As a process continues, new data is continuously added to control charts. This establishes Trends over time which provides insight into how processes are being improved. Continuous monitoring over processed through the use of control charts enables real time identification of any outliers or errors due to special causes in process. Once an error is found on a special cause is determined, the control team can then put together a strategic plan with which to eliminate the special cause or problem. This then leads to a new and improved process, which then leads to the development of new control charts. And the cycle repeats itself. Over time this cycle allows for continuous Improvement.
This is a very interesting article. It's about time this issue was brought to light. This issue regarding unfair admissions practices resonates in many different areas of society, not just College admissions. It is in some way a form of racism or exclusion. It is through these methods covered in the article that the status quo has been maintained for centuries.
One aspect of the unfair College admissions practices that this article covers is that of legacy students. Legacy meaning that an applicant parents or grandparents had previously attended the college and therefore this particular student would receive special treatment. This is obviously very unfair because being a legacy in no way is an indication of a student's aptitude or desire for success. However, it is long since known, I know I heard about it back in high school when I was first applying for colleges, that if someone was a legacy their chances of being accepted were much higher regardless of their academic standing.
The worst part about this is how the students coming from lower-class neighborhoods and poor communities suffer as a result of these unfair practices. I recall reading an article many years ago that my father shared with me that covered a research project that tracked over time the academic and professional lives of a group of people each from a different socioeconomic background. One of the students in the research project was a white male from an upper class family. This particular student had the privilege of attending an Ivy League school despite the fact that his grades were not as good as some of the other members in the group who were not able to attend such a prestigious University. He then, Upon finishing his academic work, got a high-level job in a prominent company based on connections his father had with the corporation. He was able, because of his high salary, to pay off his debts and loans very quickly and move on to the next part of his life from a very powerful and secure position.
Another story was that of a Hispanic man raised in a lower-middle-class family. This person, so he worked very hard and receive good grades, could not afford the level of Education that was so easily accessible by his upper-class colleagues. It took him longer to finish college because he was working simultaneously. The college you went to was considered a second-tier college, not an Ivy League school. And, upon graduating, he started and what is considered an entry level position. As this man developed his career, it became clear that after 10 years of work he still had not caught up to where his upper-class colleague had started directly out of college.
All of this is very unfair. I haven't even covered some of the other members in the research project that came from lower class families.
One very interesting part of this article is when it mentions hell a survey was taken of middle and high school students. They were asked What mattered most? High individual achievement, happiness, or caring for others. The article goes on to say that only 22% of students surveyed said that caring for others mattered most. This isn't very shocking. We certainly live in a society where individual achievement is Coveted Above All Else. I consider myself a very compassionate person. However, it's very clear living in this society that compassion doesn't get you very far. We still very much live in a dog-eat-dog world and capitalism continues to move in this direction.
My Hope Is that read this article and hopefully others like it, that ultimately change will be created. That we will be able to create a more equal and fair Society where everyone regardless of their background has the opportunity to achieve. And what I mean specifically by the term achieve is that it's not only about individual achievement. It's about how individual achievement is used to benefit society and help others.
One thing that really comes up for me when reading this article has to do with this specific type of education available today. The article mentions the curriculum is lacking in specific areas like robotics technicians, and coding ability. IT specialist, nurses and technicians. Which, is no doubt very important. But I can't help but thinking, now that I've been in the Working World for quite some time, that there is so much wasted time within the standard School curriculum. And there's so much that I've had to learn on my own that was never taught in a classroom.
Ever since I was in elementary school I can remember thinking and recognizing the distinctions between what was learned in school and what was learned at home. And with an emphasis on this distinction. Learning life lessons, for example, don't necessarily come from the classroom yet are very important to living successful and happy life. Lessons that have to do with Compassion or courage or self worth are not taught in school. As a society, we don't teach our children how to love one another or how to work with one another. Rather we emphasize history and Mathematics because that's what produces more products for people to buy.
If we really want to get down to it and we really want to create a better world and a more Equitable Society then it's important to look past just simply what is needed to get a job. It's important to establish an academic curriculum that is truly a reflection of life in all of its forms. So, certainly it's important to learn mathematics and science. But it's also important to learn compassion and love.
What is children were exposed to the various life lessons that a person learns by going through hardships in an academic setting? So by the time they reach their adult life and they get into the real world they won't have to go through the difficulties in order to learn the life lessons necessary to succeed.
And so much of this has to do with economics. In order to expand the curriculum so that it is a much more rich and diversified experience, it takes money. It takes dedicated teachers who are willing to commit to creating a better world by creating a better curriculum.
Reading this article and others like it it's clear how devices our society is. Sure, the article is about trying to improve the middle class and to get more people working and more people striving to earn higher degrees and as a result getting into better-paying jobs. But, this conversation can only exist in a divisive environment. If this Society were equal and fair to begin with, we wouldn't have to have this conversation. So for me, it's important that we kind of take a step back. We need to take a step back and understand that each and every one of us are human. And there were all people and that all of us deserve the very best in life. And from that perspective weekend much better create an appropriate academic curriculum that both prepares children for the professional world as well as to be part of humanity as a whole.
It's interesting how all the Articles this week seem to resonate with one another. What stood out specifically in this article is where the author writes, “ enthusiasm, a good work ethic, and a desire to learn make candidates stand out, even if they don't have a lot of experience. Our best interns and employees are willing to go the extra mile, be proactive, and do everything with a smile.” the author then goes on to give a piece of advice for anyone starting out in their first job. That advice is to never act entitled.
In a way this seems very obvious. It's so much more important, I think, to be a well-rounded person then it is to just be good at one narrow scope. Because that's not what the world is. Even if a person is a pilot, for example. Yes, they're job is to fly planes. However, in order to get the job to fly planes they have to interview, they have to meet people, and they have to develop many other skills to support their career as a pilot. Plus, if they want to be a successful pilot they're going to have to learn to get along with their co-pilots and the other workers and staff on the plane and in the company.
I mentioned this in a previous social networking article, and it really resonates well here, so I'm going to say it again in different times. These are the types of social elements that we should be teaching in schools. We should teach people how to get along with one another. Because, there is a science to it. Just as we're learning in our total quality course, the human and social aspects of a company are just as important if not more important than the technical skills required to do a job. But school focus is purely on the technical aspects. Schools focus on science and math, primarily. Because, Society wants more people to build things that ultimately sale, products and services. But in this effort we are missing out on what's really important. That is the human Element. No matter who we are, where we come from, what job we have, how smart we are, how much money we have, we all have to live on this planet together. And so, it's in each and every one of our best interest that we create a world that's much more fair and Equitable for everyone. But this is not taught in schools. This is not covered anywhere that I can remember through my education. I learned this outside of the academic curriculum.
Back to the specifics of the article about being enthusiastic and having a good work ethic, etc. I am a prime living example of this Theory. I've been able to succeed at jobs where I may not have been at all qualify for simply because I had the determination to do so. Which, at this point it's worth noting, that determination would be a great subject matter on which to build a curriculum. What if we had a class called: determination. Or a class called: work ethic.
These skills are often thought of as something that a date or something that possibly can not be talked. People are thought of as either having them or not having them. A great example is, in any social group of people some people will be known as the enthusiastic people and others will be known as the studious type. And sure, everybody will have their own character and their own personality. However, there's no reason that each and every one of us can't develop in all of the other ways where we may not be so strong.
There's a great disconnect between what's necessary to live a happy and successful life and was taught in schools. And the major problem is that so much of what's really necessary to succeed in life is not taught in schools, but rather it starts in the home or through the challenges of life.
If we were to take the total quality standards that we're learning in this course and apply them to humanity as a whole, everything would be different. Imagine putting a control chart together for the academic standards that we have and scene with the outliers are. In a total quality environment as it relates to humanity and Society, improvements would be necessary on all fronts. Politically, academically, and everywhere else.